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As a component of the plant, autumn crocus or meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale), it has been used for over 2000 years to treat gout.
In 1820 it was first extracted as colchicine by French chemists.

Colchicine is an unusual treatment in that it does not relieve most types of pain, but it is very effective for gout pain.

It works by reducing swelling and can be prescribed, in large doses, as a pain relief treatment or in small doses as a preventative.
  Pain relief
For pain relief, colchicine should be taken as soon as a gout attack starts. The most common colchicine side effects are diarrhea and sickness. You must stop taking the drug as soon as this happens, or when you have taken the maximum prescribed dose. Keep a note of how many doses caused the sickness and reduce your dosage to one less than this in future. Stop taking colchicine as soon as the pain subsides, and do not start it again for at least 3 days. This drug can build up in the body with serious consequences, so you must never take more than prescribed.
  Gout Prevention
Small doses taken daily can reduce the intensity of future gout attacks. The worst colchicine side effect in this situation can be reduction of white blood cells. It is important to have regular blood checks if you are taking colchicine in this way.
  Long term use of colchicine can also lead to breathing difficulties.
        •  This medication is used to prevent or treat gout attacks (flares).
        •  Usually gout symptoms develop suddenly and involve only one or a few joints. The big toe, knee, or ankle joints are most often affected. Gout is caused by too much uric acid in the blood. When uric acid levels in the blood are too high, the uric acid may form hard crystals in your joints. Colchicine works by decreasing swelling and lessening the build up of uric acid crystals that cause pain in the affected joint(s).
        •  This medication is also used to prevent attacks of pain in the abdomen, chest, or joints caused by a certain inherited disease (familial Mediterranean fever).
        •  It is thought to work by decreasing your body's production of a certain protein (amyloid A) that builds up in people with familial Mediterranean fever.Colchicine is not a pain medication and should not be used to relieve other causes of pain.